The menstrual cycle of women consists of four phases, which are characterized by specific changes occurring in the body. Understanding these processes is necessary to choose the most suitable time for conceiving a child, to use the calendar method correctly for determining dangerous and safe days, and also for timely detection of violations. It should be borne in mind that the duration of each phase of the menstrual cycle in each case is as individual as the cycle itself.
Phase 1 and 2 of the menstrual cycle is to prepare for the formation of an egg. Phase 3 and 4 is the formation of an egg and preparation for conception, but if conception does not occur, then the reverse process occurs, the egg dies, and the cycle begins from the beginning.
The first phase of the menstrual cycle begins on the first day of menstruation. Also, this day is considered the first day of the cycle. During menstrual bleeding under the influence of hormones, the endometrium of the uterus is rejected, and the body is preparing for the appearance of a new egg.
In the first phase of the cycle, amenorrhea is often observed – painful menstruation. Oligomenorrhea is a disease that must be treated, eliminating the causes primarily. Disturbances of the nervous and reproductive system, as well as inflammatory or infectious diseases of the pelvic organs, can cause pain during menstruation. It is easier to recover from painful menstruation once than to risk your health and continuously suffer from pain.
What is the duration of the menstrual cycle?
The first day of the menstrual cycle is the first day of menstruation (day 1). Menstruation then lasts from 3 to 7 days. Indeed, you know that in the presence of menstrual pain, you experience the most intense pain in the first few days of your period. This is because your hormones actively contribute to the rejection of the uterine mucosa, which grew during the previous menstrual cycle.
The phases of the menstrual cycle and their hormones regulating.
It is also useful for women to consume more foods containing iron, the level of which significantly decreases due to menstruation. These days it is recommended to be at rest, to avoid overvoltage and physical exertion. In some countries, there is a sick-list for women during menstruation, since in addition to discomfort, on such days attention and concentration deteriorates, mood swings, nervousness are possible.
The menstrual cycle is divided into two phases, between which ovulation occurs.
The first phase is called follicular. It is in this phase that the follicle develops, from which the egg cell will emerge, which can then turn into a developing fetus and, finally, a child. It begins on the very first day of the onset of menstruation (menstrual bleeding) and ends when ovulation occurs. It takes about half of the entire cycle. Special cells in this phase produce estrogen hormones. Throughout the entire follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, the basal temperature of a woman’s body tends to be below 37 degrees. The temperature must be known to clarify the time of ovulation – at the time of ovulation, the basal temperature will drop sharply.
The next phase of the menstrual cycle is the luteal or the yellow body phase. The corpus luteum is formed in the ovary at the site of the released egg. This phase begins immediately after ovulation and lasts as long as there is a yellow case, that is, an average of about 12-14 days. The main task at this stage is to maintain the balance of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which the yellow body secretes to prepare the body for a possible pregnancy. In this phase, the basal body temperature can be kept at 37 degrees, and then, before the onset of menstruation (menstrual bleeding), fall sharply.
Ovulation is the release of a ripe (ready for fertilization) egg from the follicle into the abdominal cavity, followed by movement along the fallopian tubes to the uterus itself. At the time of puberty, approximately 300–400 thousand oocytes are stored in the woman’s body. All of them are in the ovaries from birth and laid in the womb. The first ovulation occurs a little later than the moment of the beginning of puberty, the last – after the extinction of the menstrual function, with menopause. During pregnancy, ovulation also does not occur, but after birth, it is restored.
Establishing the moment of ovulation is of interest mainly to those women who want to get pregnant, since the possibility of pregnancy occurs only on certain days: 3-4 days before ovulation, during ovulation and 1-2 days after it.
After release, the egg moves along the fallopian tube toward the uterus. Its life cycle is up to 24 hours. The life cycle of a spermatozoon is more variable, however, and, as a rule, ranges from 3 to 5 days. Thus, the days immediately preceding ovulation and the day of ovulation itself are the most fertile – it is then that you have the most excellent chance of becoming pregnant. Immediately after ovulation, the follicle begins to produce another hormone, progesterone.
Progesterone contributes to the subsequent preparation of the mucous membrane of the uterine cavity to the adoption of a fertilized egg. Meanwhile, the empty follicle in the ovary begins to shrink, but it continues to produce progesterone and begins to produce estrogen. At this time, you may experience premenstrual tension syndromes (PMS), such as breast tenderness, bloating, drowsiness, depression, and irritability.
Preparing for the next menstruation
When the empty follicle shrinks when the egg is not fertilized, the levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease, in the absence of a high level of hormones to maintain the necessary environment, the increased mass of the mucous membrane of the uterus begins to exfoliate, and the body gets rid of it. This represents the beginning of menstruation and the beginning of the next cycle.
A fertilized egg is attached to the mucous membrane of the uterus. As a rule, this occurs one week after fertilization.
After the implantation of the egg, your body begins to produce a pregnancy hormone – human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which will support the activity of an empty follicle. It will continue to produce estrogen and progesterone to prevent rejection of the mucous membrane of the uterus until the placenta is formed that supports all the nutrients the embryo needs to maintain.
What you can not do during menstruation: common myths and reality.
Myth number 1.
During menstruation cannot do sports.
The answer to the question of whether it is possible to play sports during menstruation depends very much on the well-being, general condition and physical fitness of the woman herself. However, there is no need to entirely of doing sports these days. Pilates and yoga (without inverted postures), exercise therapy, moderate aerobic exercise, and light weights are permissible. The main thing – do not lift anything heavy and refrain from swimming, and also take care of your comfort during classes – use the Always pads, which will reliably protect you from leaks. What can not be done during menstruation, as a rule, becomes something undesirable for a woman in this period at the intuitive level or the level of sensations.
Myth number 2.
Menstruation is a disease, and the patient needs bed rest.
at rest, blood stagnates, and menstruation is more painful than if you were moving at this time in the usual way. Such a question can be solved only with the help of a doctor. If the pain during menstruation is not great, and the state of health does not sharply worsen, it is easy to cope with them: take vitamins, exercise, stay warm.
Myth number 3.
During the month cannot take a bath.
during this period, it is better to abstain from taking a bath. Excessive heat during menstruation is not desirable – the vessels expand, the blood circulation increases. Due to this, you may suffer from bleeding, and then it leads to anemia shocking isn’t it?. yes! But it happens. However, this does not mean that you need to abandon hygiene procedures. To take a warm shower is not at all impossible during menstruation.
Myth number 4.
During menstruation cannot live sex life.
Monthly – not a reason for rejection of intimate communication, if both partners do not object. One of the most frequently asked questions to the gynecologist is whether doctors can have sex during menstruation?
The doctors answer yes, but recommend using condoms during this period. Uterine blood is an excellent environment for the development of infections. Microbes that accumulate in smegma can trigger the development of inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs. With menstruation, one cannot irresponsibly treat contraception and intimate life hygiene.
Myth number 5.
During menstruation, you can not get pregnant.
Can. The many women who became pregnant during the “safe period” are proof of this. Spermatozoa remain active for several days, the cycle and the period of egg readiness for fertilization in women are different, to the extent that ovulation occurs almost simultaneously with the end of menstruation. In a word, if the plans do not include an addition to the family, protect yourself always and during menstruation too.
Tips to reduce pain in menstruation.
To find out how to get rid of the pain during menstruation, we offer you our selection of tips.
What, besides painkillers, will help to cope with unpleasant sensations?
Yoga and meditation
Pain during menstruation – a consequence of an overstrain in the abdomen. One of the most effective ways to relieve tension is to relax these muscles. Sign up for yoga or meditation courses or practice them at home on your own. They will help to relax and tidy up the emotional state physically. Another one of the most effective ways is tantric massage, try to practice it with your beloved one more often.
Peace and rest
Menstruation is the cause of the stress of millions of women. Rest and relax more. The calmer you are, the less discomfort you will be in pain. And still try to sleep longer, because healthy sleep helps to put life cycles in order.
Proper nutrition and vitamins
There are no diets that help get rid of menstrual pain. But proper nutrition will help maintain the order of metabolism in the body as a whole. Give up fried and smoked food, drink more water and juice and try not to overeat, especially at night. Add more cheese, cottage cheese, celery, dried apricots or broccoli to your diet. These foods contain a lot of calcium, which helps the muscles of the uterus to relax and reduce pain. Try to add more vitamins and supplements to your food. You can help B1 and magnesium.
A couple of minutes in a warm bath relieves spasms and relaxes muscles. Just be sure to use a tampon; otherwise, there is a risk of catching an infection. For the same reason, it is not necessary to add salt and foam to the bath. If you can not take a bath – use the heaters. Put a warm (but not hot) heating pad on the lower abdomen for 15 minutes – it will help reduce bleeding and soothe the pain. And try not to supercool: dress warmer, wear warm tights and warm shoes in cold weather.
! Be careful: do not use hot water bottles and take hot baths if you tend to heavy bleeding. The fact is that heat relaxes muscles and increases blood flow. Please do not overdo it with thermal procedures. Otherwise, they can harm you.
Optimal hygiene products
One of the ways to reduce menstrual pain is basic hygiene. If you keep your body clean, the risk of getting an infection is reduced to a minimum. Be sure to choose for yourself the most comfortable gaskets. In the Naturella lineup, products of different thickness and shape are presented – choose for yourself the most convenient ones.
When to visit a doctor
Not always the pain during menstruation can be reduced by yourself. Seek medical attention if you have the following symptoms:
- Too much bleeding
- The interval between periods is less than three weeks.
- The duration of menstruation increased to a week or more.
- Blood appeared between menstruation.
- Dizziness and fainting
Never be afraid to see a doctor! Perhaps your hormonal background has changed, proper treatment will help correct it and get rid of unpleasant sensations. Also, do not neglect psychological help. Not because of all the problems you should contact a psychotherapist, but often it is experts who help to understand better and accept themselves. Try to explain to your loved ones the causes of your condition – they will support you!